The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is a public pension program designed to provide retirement, disability, and survivor benefits to eligible Canadian citizens and residents. The Enhanced Canada Pension Plan (ECPP) is a recent improvement made to the CPP program aimed at increasing the retirement benefits provided by the plan. In this article, we’ll take a detailed look at how the Enhanced CPP changes have affected the calculation of CPP retirement pensions.
The Canada Pension Plan was established in 1966 to provide a secure source of retirement income to Canadian workers. The plan has undergone several changes over the years, with the most recent change being the Enhanced CPP. The ECPP was implemented on January 1, 2019, with the goal of increasing the average retirement benefit by about one-third.
Under the ECPP, both employees and employers are required to contribute more to the plan. The contribution rate has increased by 1% each year, reaching an additional 4% by 2023. The increased contributions are meant to provide a higher retirement pension for eligible contributors. The changes to the CPP also provide for an increased yearly maximum pensionable earnings (YMPE) and a higher replacement rate for the average earnings up to the YMPE.
Table 1: Comparison of CPP and Enhanced CPP Benefits
|Yearly Maximum Pensionable Earnings (YMPE)||$61,600 (2022)||$71,100 (2023)|
|Replacement Rate for Average Earnings up to YMPE||25%||33.33%|
|Employee Contribution Rate||4.95%||5.45% (2023)|
|Employer Contribution Rate||4.95%||5.45% (2023)|
Calculating Your CPP Retirement Pension: The amount of your CPP retirement pension is based on several factors, including your earnings history, the age at which you choose to start receiving your pension, and the number of years you have contributed to the plan. To calculate your CPP retirement pension, you’ll need to know the following information:
- Your average monthly earnings from the time you started contributing to the CPP until the year you turn 70
- The number of years you have contributed to the plan
- The age at which you choose to start receiving your pension (between the ages of 60 and 70)
Once you have this information, you can use the formula below to calculate your CPP retirement pension:
Pension = (Average Monthly Earnings x Replacement Rate) / 12 x Number of Years of Contributions
Let’s say Jane is 60 years old and has contributed to the CPP for 35 years. Her average monthly earnings over those 35 years were $5,000. Based on this information, her CPP retirement pension would be calculated as follows:
Pension = ($5,000 x 33.33%) / 12 x 35 Pension = $1,382.50 per month
Pros and Cons of the Enhanced CPP
- Increased retirement benefits: The ECPP provides for higher retirement benefits, which means that eligible contributors will receive more money each month in retirement.
- Increased security: The ECPP is designed to provide a more secure source of retirement income, which can help reduce the risk of poverty in old age.
- Improved disability and survivor benefits: The ECPP also includes improved disability and survivor benefits, providing greater financial support for those who need it.
- Increased contributions: One of the drawbacks of the ECPP is that both employees and employers are required to contribute more to the plan. This can result in lower take-home pay for employees and increased costs for employers.
- Delayed retirement benefits: As the ECPP provides higher retirement benefits, it also means that contributors will have to wait longer to receive their full pension. The pensionable age has increased to 67, meaning that contributors will need to wait until they are 67 years old to receive their full pension.
- Reduced pension for early retirees: If you choose to start receiving your pension before the age of 67, your monthly pension amount will be reduced. The reduction is greater the earlier you start receiving your pension.
The Enhanced Canada Pension Plan (ECPP) is a recent improvement made to the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) aimed at increasing the retirement benefits provided by the plan. The ECPP requires both employees and employers to contribute more to the plan, resulting in higher retirement benefits for eligible contributors. The calculation of CPP retirement pensions has been affected by the ECPP changes, with an increased replacement rate for the average earnings up to the YMPE, and an increased yearly maximum pensionable earnings (YMPE). The ECPP has both pros and cons, including increased retirement benefits, improved security, and improved disability and survivor benefits, but also increased contributions and reduced pensions for early retirees.
- Government of Canada. (2022). Canada Pension Plan (CPP). https://www.canada.ca/en/services/benefits/publicpensions/cpp.html
- Government of Canada. (2022). Enhanced Canada Pension Plan.https://www.canada.ca/en/services/benefits/publicpensions/cpp/cpp-enhancement.html